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  • 2. Cite Your Research

    This will help you find books at the Long Beach City College Libraries.

    Citation Formats for Common Sources

    Learn more and peruse specific examples at the APA Blog.

    When citing a generative-AI chatbot, like ChatGPT, adhere to the criteria and format outlined by the Chicago Style:

    • Author, Publisher, Date, Source URL
      • i.e. Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, March 7, 2023,

    Consider AI as Wikipedia v.2 -  we should never copy/paste Wikipedia information straight into our paper and claim it as our own. Similarly, we can use generative AI to learn more about a topic, brainstorm, and refine our ideas, but we should never copy/paste AI content into our assignments and say they are our own words.

    According to the Chicago Manual of Style, "you must credit ChatGPT when you reproduce its words within your own work, but unless you include a publicly available URL, that information should be put in the text or in a note—not in a bibliography or reference list. Other AI-generated text can be cited similarly". 

    As good practice, we should cite a generative-AI chatbot when we...

    • paraphrase, quote, or incorporate into your own work any content (whether text, image, data, or other) that was created by it 
    • acknowledge all functional uses of the tool (like editing your prose or translating words) in a note, your text, or another suitable location 

    ChatGPT in particular will invent (or hallucinate) plausible-looking sources. This is why you should always double-check and vet the secondary sources the chatbot cites.

    Book by One Author

    Kerouac, Jack. The Dharma Bums. New York: Viking Press, 1958.


    Book by Multiple Authors

    Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs & Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.


    Chapter from a Single-Authored Book

    Anzaldúa, Gloria. “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.” In Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera, 53–64. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987. 


    Electronic Book

    Davidson, Donald. Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Clarendon, 2001.

    In-Print Article

    MacDonald, Susan Peck. “The Erasure of Language.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.


    Electronic Article

    Peltonen, Kirsi, Noora Ellonen, Helmer B. Larsen, and Karin Helweg-Larsen. “Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health.” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 11 (2010): 813-822. doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.



    Deo, Nisha. “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009. Search the OWL

    Webpage with Known Author and Date

    Heck, Richard Kimberly. “About the Philosophical Gourmet Report.” Last modified August 5, 2016.


    Webpage With Date But No Author

    "Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government.” CNN online. January 30, 2009.


    Webpage with Author But No Date

    “Band.” Casa de Calexico. Accessed October 27, 2017.




    Shanley, John Patrick, dir. Joe Versus the Volcano. 1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002. DVD.



    Shanley, John Patrick, dir. Joe Versus the Volcano. 1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002. DVD.


    Musical Recording

    Name of group or composer or performer. Title. Contributing personnel. Recording date. Recording Company or Publisher, medium.

    Dylan, Bob. “Workingman’s Blues #2.” Recorded February 2006. Track 3 on Modern Times. Columbia, compact disc.


    Recorded Speeches

    Lastname, Firstname. “Speech Title.” Date of speech. Location of speech. Medium, running time. Information on where the recording can be found.

    Morrison, Toni. “Nobel Lecture.” December 7, 1993. Grand Hall of the Swedish Academy, Stockholm, Sweden. MPEG-4, 33:18.


    Audiobooks or Recordings

    Lastname, Firstname. Title. Read by Firstname Lastname. City: Publisher, year. Medium, running time.

    Ruff, Matt. Lovecraft Country. Read by Kevin Kenerly. Ashland, OR: Blackstone Audio, 2016. Audible audio ed., 12 hr., 14 min.


    Online Multimedia

    Lastname, Firstname of Creator. Title of Work. Additional contributors. Publishing organization. Publication date. Indication of format/medium, running time. URL.

    Main Parts of a Chicago Paper

    According to Turabian style, class papers will either include a title page or include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines should your instructor or context require a title page:

    • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
    • Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later.
    • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
    • Double-space each line of the title page.

    • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
    • Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name.
      • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.
      • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
      • The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
      • Titles of plays should be italicized.
      • Otherwise, take a minimalist approach to capitalization.
        • For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
      • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To offset the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to offset the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.

    In Flowers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought, Rose eloquently sums up his argument in the following quotation:

    In a society of control, a politics of conduct is
    designed into the fabric of existence itself, into the
    organization of space, time, visibility, circuits of
    communication. And these enwrap each individual life
    decision and action—about labour [sic], purchases, debts,
    credits, lifestyle, sexual contracts and the like—in a web
    of incitements, rewards, current sanctions and foreboding
    of future sanctions which serve to enjoin citizens to
    maintain particular types of control over their conduct.
    These assemblages which entail the securitization of
    identity are not unified, but dispersed, not hierarchical
    but rhizomatic, not totalized but connected in a web or
    relays and relations. (246)

    In-Text Chicago Style Citations

    There are two ways to cite sources and ideas in the text of your essay. They are used by students of different disciplines and have unique formatting differences.

    1. the Author-Date System
      1. place your citations in parentheses within the text itself.
      2. used by students in the social sciences.
    2. the Notes-Bibliography System (NB)
      1. place your citations in numbered footnotes or endnotes.
      2. is used by students of literature, history, and the arts.


    Author-Date System in Chicago Style

    With the Author-date style you will insert your citations directly in the text. You will close the author and date of publication information in parentheses. The author information is the last name and the date information is the year of publication. Also include a page number or range of pages if you are directly citing the text of another work.

    You have flexibility in deciding exactly where to place the elements of your citation. Commonly, the author and date information will be presented at the end of the sentence, but can be interspersed with more style to allow for a creative reading experience.

    One researcher argues that “the data is unconvincing” (Johnson 2016, 138). Nevertheless, Smith (2017, 121) contends that the study makes “a compelling case” for this plan of action.

    Combine multiple citations with a semicolon according to this example:

    Other researchers (Dale 2018, 75–81; Valentine 2018) have weighed in on the topic more recently…

    Notes and Bibliography (NB) in Chicago Style

    "In the Notes and Bibliography system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary. Footnotes are added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, while endnotes are compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document."

    "If a work includes a bibliography, which is typically preferred, then it is not necessary to provide full publication details in notes. However, if a bibliography is not included with a work, the first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication."

    • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
    • In the text:
      • Note numbers are superscripted.
      • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash.
    • In the footnotes:
      • Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).
      • Lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. Place commentary after source documentation when a footnote contains both; separate commentary and documentation by a period.
        • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
        • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range.


    More Information

    Visit the OWL Guide for more information on the Author-date and Notes-Bibliography systems.


    • Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author-Date style).
    • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry.
    • Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
    • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry, be that the author's name or the title of the piece..
    • Use “and,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries.
      • For two to three authors, write out all names.
      • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations.
      • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text.
      • Write out publishers’ names in full.
      • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.
      • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
      • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
      • If no DOI is available, provide a URL.
      • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).